19 February 2019

Life of Thoreau and Transcendentalism

Henry D. Thoreau was born in 1817 in Concord, Massachusetts. He grew up in a financially stable family and went to Harvard College as did his grandfather before him. At Harvard, Thoreau studied Latin and Greek composition among other variety of courses, such as English, mathematics, history, philosophy, Italian, French, German, and Spanish. Thoreau became an aspiring writer after college, starting to keep a journal in 1837, writing and publishing numerous essays and reviews. However, to make ends meet, he had to work at other jobs. According to The Correspondence of Henry David Thoreau, he wrote: “I am a Schoolmaster–a Private Tutor, a Surveyor–a Gardener, a Farmer–a Painter, I mean a House Painter, a Carpenter, a Mason, a Day-Laborer, a Pencil-Maker, a Glass-paper Maker, a Writer, and sometimes a Poetaster.” (Walter Harding and Carl, 186) He expressed the advantage of making just enough money to supply his simple living so that he could concentrate on his writing.

Thoreau came of age during the Transcendentalist movement that started in New England in the late 1820s. He was 19 years old when his mentor Emerson published Nature, an essay stating the philosophical foundation of the movement: “The foregoing generations beheld God and nature face to face;” wrote Emerson in Nature, “we, through their eyes. Why should not we also enjoy an original relation to the universe? Why should not we have a poetry and philosophy of insight and not of tradition, and a religion by revelation to us, and not the history of theirs?” The Transcendentalists believe a personal and intuitive experience of the divine, one available to everybody, and the reliability of one’s conscience because God dwells within the soul of each individual. They believe two indispensable parts, the soul and nature, consist the universe. While Thoreau is a prominent member of the Transcendentalists’ circle, he is also a nonconformist. He values solitary more than group activities; and believes in the power and obligation of the individual to discern right from wrong, independent of the social orders. 

The life experience and the conviction of Transcendentalism prepared and enabled Thoreau to write his best-known work Walden, or Life in the woods, which was published in 1854. In Walden, he declares, “I know of no more encouraging fact than the unquestionable ability of man to elevate his life by a conscious endeavor.” As Gray points out, this “was not only the creed that Thoreau preached in his writings, along with Emerson, Fuller, and the other Transcendentalists. It was also the creed that he embraced, and tried to follow, in his life.” (121) In the solitary sojourn of the Walden woods for over two years, Thoreau kept up journaling, by then a life-long habit, and used it years later to recreate the experience on paper. Not only the content but also the style of Walden manifests Thoreau’s vision of individualism. It defies any strict genre categorization, such as an autobiography, a spiritual diary, a narrative of philosophy, a journal of nature, and stands by itself on its own uniqueness.

Work Cited:

Emerson, Ralph Waldo. Nature. http://transcendentalism-legacy.tamu.edu/authors/emerson/nature.html. Digital. Accessed on October 30, 2018.

Gray, Richard. A History of American Literature. 2nd Ed. Wiley-Blackwell, West Sussex, UK. 2012.

Harding, Walter. Bode, Carl. The Correspondence of Henry David Thoreau. New York University Press, New York. 1958.

Thoreau, Henry David. Walden, and On The Duty Of Civil Disobedience http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/205?msg=welcome_stranger#linkW1. Digital. Accessed on October 30, 2018.

18 January 2019

Clash of Cultures and Identities in “Daisy Miller” and “On Being Brought from Africa to America”

Daisy Miller by Henry James

In his novella Daisy Miller, Henry Miller sheds light on the clash of two cultures and identities: one is the New World with its freshness, innocence, ignorance and simplicity, while the other is the Old Continent with its Victorian moral codes and rigid social and gender hierarchies. The story’s protagonist, Daisy, a young American tourist, along with her unorthodox mother and spoiled kid brother, represents the new American identity in the 19th century: “uncultured”, unsophisticated, “vulgar”, but fresh, direct, bold, outgoing, and innocent. The story’s other protagonist, Winterbourne, a young American man but assimilated into the European culture, along with his aunt and other Europeanized expatriates embodies the traits of the traditional Old Continent: established, “cultured”, sophisticated, restrictive with rules and behavior codes. The cultural gap of the new and old collides and generates conflict and misunderstanding in character’s perception of each other. The clash hinders further development of Daisy and Winterbourne’s budding relationship and propels the story to a tragic end as Daisy refuses to comply with the social norm of the traditional world.  

The two opposing identities and collision are evident from the beginning of the story when Winterbourne first met Daisy. Other than a cry from Randolph, “He’s an American Man!” there were no other formal greetings or formality discerned so he started to talk to Daisy: “This little boy and I have made acquaintance.” Then he was aware right away that “In Geneva… a young man was not at liberty to speak to a young unmarried lady except under certain rarely occurring conditions;” and “he wondered whether he had gone too far.” Daisy, on the other hand, chatted freely, and “was not in the least embarrassed herself.” She glanced at him, and “he saw that this glance was perfectly direct and unshrinking. It was not, however, what would have called an immodest glance, for the young girl’s eyes were singular honest and fresh.” However, not everyone share this perception. Winterbourne’s aunt refused to be introduced to the “vulgar” family and called Daisy “a dreadful girl”. His other friends asked him to distance himself from Daisy as she was an unabashed flirt and enjoyed the society of many gentlemen and “has gone too far”. Winterbourne was often amused, flattered but also perplexed by her bold and carefree behavior. He was bewildered both by her innocence – “Winterbourne had lost his instinct in this matter, and his reason could not help him. Miss Miller looked extremely innocent”, and her flightiness – “He was inclined to think Miss Daisy was a flirt – a pretty American flirt.” To Daisy, Winterbourne was “horrid”, “stiff” on several incidents even though she liked his company and asked him to go to the castle with her in Switzerland and later with her family to Italy. She teased him and complained he should be more direct and gentleman-like, just as her other intimate Italian friend.

The cultural clash and social intersection are demonstrated in an earlier American history in a poem by Phillis Wheatley: On Being Brought from Africa to America. In comparison with Daisy Miller, Wheatley’s poem underlines the racial gap and the spiritual integration. Being snatched from her motherland Africa as a slave, then raised and educated in a white family and converted into Christianity, Wheatley was caught in the two worlds: master vs slave, “Pagan” land vs God’s country, black “sable race” vs white Christian. Ironically and poignantly, she applied her adopted religion, the dominant one, to plead to her readers, the dominant race, that God is a universal savior and his mercy and redemption should be available to all regardless of the color of skin.

Work Cited

James, Henry. DAISY MILLER: A STUDY. The Project Gutenberg EBook of Daisy Miller: a Study

Wheatley, Phillis. On Being Brought from Africa to America. Poetry Foundation, Poetry Foundation, https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poems/45465/on-being-brought-from-africa-to-america. Accessed 17 Oct 2018.

13 January 2019

Working-Class Heroes?

Thoreau’s Walden was first published in 1854, about a decade after his experience living in a cabin in the woods and not long after the first industrial revolution swept the United States. During the time of his “experiments” in Walden and later the writing of it, the American economy underwent a historical transformation from small independent farmers and artisans, who work mainly for themselves and local markets, to specialized workforce in factories. The process of production was divided into separate tasks, each performed and automated by the machine and the machine worker, who became an invisible and inconsequential peg in the vast profit-driven machinery. The mindless, repetitive and soul-sucking nature of such work replaced the supposedly more intimate and satisfying nature of work with one’s own process, tools and materials. Industrialization also took away the independence and peace of farmers who used to work more in harmony with nature to provide for their family’s basic needs: food, clothing and shelter. It was in time of this technological and economic development, Thoreau expressed his philosophy of work against the potential destruction of human nature, creativity and spirit for the benefits of commerce.

In Economy, the first and the longest chapter of Walden, Thoreau warned his readers not to “become tools for their tools” (33) and urge them to find work they love and suit their talent, to follow their genius, and find time to develop their personal and spiritual growth:

Most men… through mere ignorance and mistake, are so occupied with the factitious cares and superfluously coarse labors of life that its finer fruits cannot be plucked by them. Their fingers, from excessive toil, are too clumsy and tremble too much for that. Actually, the laboring man has not leisure for a true integrity day by day; he cannot afford to sustain the manliest relations to men; his labor would be depreciated in the market. He has no time to be anything but a machine. How can he remember well his ignorance—which his growth requires—who has so often to use his knowledge? We should feed and clothe him gratuitously sometimes, and recruit him with our cordials, before we judge of him. The finest qualities of our nature, like the bloom on fruits, can be preserved only by the most delicate handling. Yet we do not treat ourselves nor one another thus tenderly. (4)

In Economy, Thoreau also stated that the pressure to work for any job to live a more luxurious but unnecessary lifestyle arose from the social conditioning and pressure of a society built on the pervasive culture of consumerism. Thoreau argued that excess materialistic ownership or taste, whether it be shelter, clothing, or food, was a shackle to enslave oneself instead of emancipation:

I see young men, my townsmen, whose misfortune it is to have inherited farms, houses, barns, cattle, and farming tools; for these are more easily acquired than got rid of. Better if they had been born in the open pasture and suckled by a wolf, that they might have seen with clearer eyes what field they were called to labor in. Who made them serfs of the soil? (3)

Most of the luxuries, and many of the so-called comforts of life, are not only not indispensable, but positive hindrances to the elevation of mankind.”(12)

The very simplicity and nakedness of man’s life in the primitive ages imply this advantage, at least, that they left him still but a sojourner in nature… He dwelt, as it were, in a tent in this world, and was either threading the valleys, or crossing the plains, or climbing the mountain-tops. But lo! men have become the tools of their tools. The man who independently plucked the fruits when he was hungry is become a farmer; and he who stood under a tree for shelter, a housekeeper… (33)

By working smart and keeping his expense as low as possible, Thoreau could spend majority of his time doing what he loved to do, a type of work that gave him true meaning and purpose beyond a paycheck: writing, reading, thinking/meditating, walking, observing nature:

For more than five years I maintained myself thus solely by the labor of my hands, and I found that, by working about six weeks in a year, I could meet all the expenses of living. The whole of my winters, as well as most of my summers, I had free and clear for study. (65)

The social pressure of work and its damaging impact from a consumer culture is felt in Morrison’s The Bluest Eye as well. One example is the tragic life of a secondary character, Pauline Williams, the main character Pecola’s mother. A spiritual, simple, and dreamy young woman from a small rural town of Alabama, after falling in love and migrating to an urban industrial town of north Ohio, Pauline fell prey to the conformity of materialism and style/fashion while her newly-wed husband, Cholly, worked in a steel mill:

Pauline felt uncomfortable with few black women she met. They were amused by her because she did not straighten her hair. When she tried to make up her face as they did, it came off rather badly. Their goading glances and private snickers at her way of talking…and dressing developed in her a desire for new clothes. When Cholly began to quarrel about the money she wanted, she decided to go to work. Taking jobs as a day worker helped with the clothes, and even a few things of for the apartment, but it did not help with Cholly. He was not pleased with her purchase and began to tell her so. Their marriage was shredded with quarrels. (118)

The story in The Bluest Eye spans from the depression era in early 30s to early 40s, about a decade after the second industrial revolution drastically changed the working and social landscape of America again. Though from different time period, the theme of work, or more accurately, meaningless, material-driven work, its impact on personal freedom and growth, its distraction, its hidden and high price paid by the working poor, remains similar in both Walden and The Bluest Eye. Their message continues to be alarming and relevant in the age of digital revolution in which we live now.  

Work Cited

Thoreau, Henry David. “Economy.” Walden, Four River Press, New York, 2008

Morrison, Tony. The Bluest Eye, Vintage International, New York, 2007

14 December 2018

Getting Back to Nature

The following three poems, in my opinion, demonstrate the complexities and dynamics of how nature is depicted in American literature.

“Song of Nature” by Emerson is an ode to the natural world, whose history, evolution, and cycle is entwined with human history. The poem opens with personal “I” embedded in “night and morning”, “the solar glory”, and zooms out in space and time to “many a thousand summers” and far-away stars. It traces the trajectory of humankind, which was written in the history of rock, fire, sea and the human endeavor of “building in the coral sea” and “planting of the coal.” The poem then arrives at the birth or re-birth of humanity born out of the endless cycle of the universe, out of “spent and aged things…” The idea and theme expressed in the poem correspond with Buell’ point that nature is not just a framing device but it also encapsulates and connects with human history. In search of a human God, Emerson in the end finds heaven in the dewy thorn of the fresh rose and expresses his re-imagining of the divine as immense and visible as nature.

Like “Song of Nature”, “Meditation at Lagunitas” by Robert Hass celebrates the tangible beauty of nature. Unlike the general, meaningless, and wearisome talk of ideas, the image of “a woodpecker probing the dead sculpted trunk / of that black birch” and “the bramble of blackberry” illuminate more on the human spirituality and condition. Black birch signifies the “fallen off from a first world of undivided light”, childhood is associated with “river with its island willows” and “orange-silver fish”, and the tenderness of love is manifested in the body, and “blackberry, blackberry, blackberry”.

“Mock Orange” by Louise Gluck, on the other hand, uses nature’s image to express the speaker’s anger and disappointment in human relationship. Unlike the pastoral and romantic poems about nature such as “Song of Nature” and “Meditation at Lagunitas”, the poem informs that nature is not all beauty. Look at the mock orange, it is fake and its odor odious and unbearable, it does not bear the real fruit, and same goes with the union of a man and a woman. In this poem, the speaker links her personal story to an image in nature and reminds readers that not all is peaceful, sweet and inspiring. The natural world is full of falsehood as humans “were made fools of”. Nevertheless, the poem shows the intricate connection between human emotions and their perceived environment: on that night, “It is not the moon, I tell you. / It is these flowers / lighting the yard.”